path: root/mm/page-writeback.c
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2021-05-07mm: fix typos in commentsIngo Molnar
Fix ~94 single-word typos in locking code comments, plus a few very obvious grammar mistakes. Link: Link: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <> Reviewed-by: Matthew Wilcox (Oracle) <> Reviewed-by: Randy Dunlap <> Cc: Bhaskar Chowdhury <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2021-04-30mm: page-writeback: simplify memcg handling in test_clear_page_writeback()Johannes Weiner
Page writeback doesn't hold a page reference, which allows truncate to free a page the second PageWriteback is cleared. This used to require special attention in test_clear_page_writeback(), where we had to be careful not to rely on the unstable page->memcg binding and look up all the necessary information before clearing the writeback flag. Since commit 073861ed77b6 ("mm: fix VM_BUG_ON(PageTail) and BUG_ON(PageWriteback)") test_clear_page_writeback() is called with an explicit reference on the page, and this dance is no longer needed. Use unlock_page_memcg() and dec_lruvec_page_state() directly. This removes the last user of the lock_page_memcg() return value, change it to void. Touch up the comments in there as well. This also removes the last extern user of __unlock_page_memcg(), make it static. Further, it removes the last user of dec_lruvec_state(), delete it, along with a few other unused helpers. Link: Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <> Reviewed-by: Shakeel Butt <> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <> Cc: Roman Gushchin <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2021-03-23mm/writeback: Add wait_on_page_writeback_killableMatthew Wilcox (Oracle)
This is the killable version of wait_on_page_writeback. Signed-off-by: Matthew Wilcox (Oracle) <> Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Signed-off-by: David Howells <> Tested-by: cc: cc: Link:
2021-01-05mm: make wait_on_page_writeback() wait for multiple pending writebacksLinus Torvalds
Ever since commit 2a9127fcf229 ("mm: rewrite wait_on_page_bit_common() logic") we've had some very occasional reports of BUG_ON(PageWriteback) in write_cache_pages(), which we thought we already fixed in commit 073861ed77b6 ("mm: fix VM_BUG_ON(PageTail) and BUG_ON(PageWriteback)"). But syzbot just reported another one, even with that commit in place. And it turns out that there's a simpler way to trigger the BUG_ON() than the one Hugh found with page re-use. It all boils down to the fact that the page writeback is ostensibly serialized by the page lock, but that isn't actually really true. Yes, the people _setting_ writeback all do so under the page lock, but the actual clearing of the bit - and waking up any waiters - happens without any page lock. This gives us this fairly simple race condition: CPU1 = end previous writeback CPU2 = start new writeback under page lock CPU3 = write_cache_pages() CPU1 CPU2 CPU3 ---- ---- ---- end_page_writeback() test_clear_page_writeback(page) ... delayed... lock_page(); set_page_writeback() unlock_page() lock_page() wait_on_page_writeback(); wake_up_page(page, PG_writeback); .. wakes up CPU3 .. BUG_ON(PageWriteback(page)); where the BUG_ON() happens because we woke up the PG_writeback bit becasue of the _previous_ writeback, but a new one had already been started because the clearing of the bit wasn't actually atomic wrt the actual wakeup or serialized by the page lock. The reason this didn't use to happen was that the old logic in waiting on a page bit would just loop if it ever saw the bit set again. The nice proper fix would probably be to get rid of the whole "wait for writeback to clear, and then set it" logic in the writeback path, and replace it with an atomic "wait-to-set" (ie the same as we have for page locking: we set the page lock bit with a single "lock_page()", not with "wait for lock bit to clear and then set it"). However, out current model for writeback is that the waiting for the writeback bit is done by the generic VFS code (ie write_cache_pages()), but the actual setting of the writeback bit is done much later by the filesystem ".writepages()" function. IOW, to make the writeback bit have that same kind of "wait-to-set" behavior as we have for page locking, we'd have to change our roughly ~50 different writeback functions. Painful. Instead, just make "wait_on_page_writeback()" loop on the very unlikely situation that the PG_writeback bit is still set, basically re-instating the old behavior. This is very non-optimal in case of contention, but since we only ever set the bit under the page lock, that situation is controlled. Reported-by: Fixes: 2a9127fcf229 ("mm: rewrite wait_on_page_bit_common() logic") Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Matthew Wilcox <> Cc: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-11-24mm: fix VM_BUG_ON(PageTail) and BUG_ON(PageWriteback)Hugh Dickins
Twice now, when exercising ext4 looped on shmem huge pages, I have crashed on the PF_ONLY_HEAD check inside PageWaiters(): ext4_finish_bio() calling end_page_writeback() calling wake_up_page() on tail of a shmem huge page, no longer an ext4 page at all. The problem is that PageWriteback is not accompanied by a page reference (as the NOTE at the end of test_clear_page_writeback() acknowledges): as soon as TestClearPageWriteback has been done, that page could be removed from page cache, freed, and reused for something else by the time that wake_up_page() is reached. Matthew Wilcox suggested avoiding or weakening the PageWaiters() tail check; but I'm paranoid about even looking at an unreferenced struct page, lest its memory might itself have already been reused or hotremoved (and wake_up_page_bit() may modify that memory with its ClearPageWaiters()). Then on crashing a second time, realized there's a stronger reason against that approach. If my testing just occasionally crashes on that check, when the page is reused for part of a compound page, wouldn't it be much more common for the page to get reused as an order-0 page before reaching wake_up_page()? And on rare occasions, might that reused page already be marked PageWriteback by its new user, and already be waited upon? What would that look like? It would look like BUG_ON(PageWriteback) after wait_on_page_writeback() in write_cache_pages() (though I have never seen that crash myself). Matthew Wilcox explaining this to himself: "page is allocated, added to page cache, dirtied, writeback starts, --- thread A --- filesystem calls end_page_writeback() test_clear_page_writeback() --- context switch to thread B --- truncate_inode_pages_range() finds the page, it doesn't have writeback set, we delete it from the page cache. Page gets reallocated, dirtied, writeback starts again. Then we call write_cache_pages(), see PageWriteback() set, call wait_on_page_writeback() --- context switch back to thread A --- wake_up_page(page, PG_writeback); ... thread B is woken, but because the wakeup was for the old use of the page, PageWriteback is still set. Devious" And prior to 2a9127fcf229 ("mm: rewrite wait_on_page_bit_common() logic") this would have been much less likely: before that, wake_page_function()'s non-exclusive case would stop walking and not wake if it found Writeback already set again; whereas now the non-exclusive case proceeds to wake. I have not thought of a fix that does not add a little overhead: the simplest fix is for end_page_writeback() to get_page() before calling test_clear_page_writeback(), then put_page() after wake_up_page(). Was there a chance of missed wakeups before, since a page freed before reaching wake_up_page() would have PageWaiters cleared? I think not, because each waiter does hold a reference on the page. This bug comes when the old use of the page, the one we do TestClearPageWriteback on, had *no* waiters, so no additional page reference beyond the page cache (and whoever racily freed it). The reuse of the page has a waiter holding a reference, and its own PageWriteback set; but the belated wake_up_page() has woken the reuse to hit that BUG_ON(PageWriteback). Reported-by: Reported-by: Qian Cai <> Fixes: 2a9127fcf229 ("mm: rewrite wait_on_page_bit_common() logic") Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: # v5.8+ Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-10-16mm/page-writeback: support tail pages in wait_for_stable_pageMatthew Wilcox (Oracle)
page->mapping is undefined for tail pages, so operate exclusively on the head page. Signed-off-by: Matthew Wilcox (Oracle) <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: SeongJae Park <> Acked-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <> Cc: Huang Ying <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-09-24bdi: replace BDI_CAP_NO_{WRITEBACK,ACCT_DIRTY} with a single flagChristoph Hellwig
Replace the two negative flags that are always used together with a single positive flag that indicates the writeback capability instead of two related non-capabilities. Also remove the pointless wrappers to just check the flag. Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Reviewed-by: Johannes Thumshirn <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2020-09-24bdi: invert BDI_CAP_NO_ACCT_WBChristoph Hellwig
Replace BDI_CAP_NO_ACCT_WB with a positive BDI_CAP_WRITEBACK_ACCT to make the checks more obvious. Also remove the pointless bdi_cap_account_writeback wrapper that just obsfucates the check. Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Reviewed-by: Johannes Thumshirn <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2020-09-24bdi: replace BDI_CAP_STABLE_WRITES with a queue and a sb flagChristoph Hellwig
The BDI_CAP_STABLE_WRITES is one of the few bits of information in the backing_dev_info shared between the block drivers and the writeback code. To help untangling the dependency replace it with a queue flag and a superblock flag derived from it. This also helps with the case of e.g. a file system requiring stable writes due to its own checksumming, but not forcing it on other users of the block device like the swap code. One downside is that we an't support the stable_pages_required bdi attribute in sysfs anymore. It is replaced with a queue attribute which also is writable for easier testing. Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Reviewed-by: Johannes Thumshirn <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2020-08-07mm: remove vm_total_pagesDavid Hildenbrand
The global variable "vm_total_pages" is a relic from older days. There is only a single user that reads the variable - build_all_zonelists() - and the first thing it does is update it. Use a local variable in build_all_zonelists() instead and remove the global variable. Signed-off-by: David Hildenbrand <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: Wei Yang <> Reviewed-by: Pankaj Gupta <> Reviewed-by: Mike Rapoport <> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <> Cc: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Huang Ying <> Cc: Minchan Kim <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-06-04mm/page-writeback: fix a typo in comment "effictive"->"effective"Ethon Paul
There is a typo in comment, fix it. Signed-off-by: Ethon Paul <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-06-03Merge git:// Torvalds
Pull networking updates from David Miller: 1) Allow setting bluetooth L2CAP modes via socket option, from Luiz Augusto von Dentz. 2) Add GSO partial support to igc, from Sasha Neftin. 3) Several cleanups and improvements to r8169 from Heiner Kallweit. 4) Add IF_OPER_TESTING link state and use it when ethtool triggers a device self-test. From Andrew Lunn. 5) Start moving away from custom driver versions, use the globally defined kernel version instead, from Leon Romanovsky. 6) Support GRO vis gro_cells in DSA layer, from Alexander Lobakin. 7) Allow hard IRQ deferral during NAPI, from Eric Dumazet. 8) Add sriov and vf support to hinic, from Luo bin. 9) Support Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP) in the bridging code, from Horatiu Vultur. 10) Support netmap in the nft_nat code, from Pablo Neira Ayuso. 11) Allow UDPv6 encapsulation of ESP in the ipsec code, from Sabrina Dubroca. Also add ipv6 support for espintcp. 12) Lots of ReST conversions of the networking documentation, from Mauro Carvalho Chehab. 13) Support configuration of ethtool rxnfc flows in bcmgenet driver, from Doug Berger. 14) Allow to dump cgroup id and filter by it in inet_diag code, from Dmitry Yakunin. 15) Add infrastructure to export netlink attribute policies to userspace, from Johannes Berg. 16) Several optimizations to sch_fq scheduler, from Eric Dumazet. 17) Fallback to the default qdisc if qdisc init fails because otherwise a packet scheduler init failure will make a device inoperative. From Jesper Dangaard Brouer. 18) Several RISCV bpf jit optimizations, from Luke Nelson. 19) Correct the return type of the ->ndo_start_xmit() method in several drivers, it's netdev_tx_t but many drivers were using 'int'. From Yunjian Wang. 20) Add an ethtool interface for PHY master/slave config, from Oleksij Rempel. 21) Add BPF iterators, from Yonghang Song. 22) Add cable test infrastructure, including ethool interfaces, from Andrew Lunn. Marvell PHY driver is the first to support this facility. 23) Remove zero-length arrays all over, from Gustavo A. R. Silva. 24) Calculate and maintain an explicit frame size in XDP, from Jesper Dangaard Brouer. 25) Add CAP_BPF, from Alexei Starovoitov. 26) Support terse dumps in the packet scheduler, from Vlad Buslov. 27) Support XDP_TX bulking in dpaa2 driver, from Ioana Ciornei. 28) Add devm_register_netdev(), from Bartosz Golaszewski. 29) Minimize qdisc resets, from Cong Wang. 30) Get rid of kernel_getsockopt and kernel_setsockopt in order to eliminate set_fs/get_fs calls. From Christoph Hellwig. * git:// (2517 commits) selftests: net: ip_defrag: ignore EPERM net_failover: fixed rollback in net_failover_open() Revert "tipc: Fix potential tipc_aead refcnt leak in tipc_crypto_rcv" Revert "tipc: Fix potential tipc_node refcnt leak in tipc_rcv" vmxnet3: allow rx flow hash ops only when rss is enabled hinic: add set_channels ethtool_ops support selftests/bpf: Add a default $(CXX) value tools/bpf: Don't use $(COMPILE.c) bpf, selftests: Use bpf_probe_read_kernel s390/bpf: Use bcr 0,%0 as tail call nop filler s390/bpf: Maintain 8-byte stack alignment selftests/bpf: Fix verifier test selftests/bpf: Fix sample_cnt shared between two threads bpf, selftests: Adapt cls_redirect to call csum_level helper bpf: Add csum_level helper for fixing up csum levels bpf: Fix up bpf_skb_adjust_room helper's skb csum setting sfc: add missing annotation for efx_ef10_try_update_nic_stats_vf() crypto/chtls: IPv6 support for inline TLS Crypto/chcr: Fixes a coccinile check error Crypto/chcr: Fixes compilations warnings ...
2020-06-02mm/writeback: discard NR_UNSTABLE_NFS, use NR_WRITEBACK insteadNeilBrown
After an NFS page has been written it is considered "unstable" until a COMMIT request succeeds. If the COMMIT fails, the page will be re-written. These "unstable" pages are currently accounted as "reclaimable", either in WB_RECLAIMABLE, or in NR_UNSTABLE_NFS which is included in a 'reclaimable' count. This might have made sense when sending the COMMIT required a separate action by the VFS/MM (e.g. releasepage() used to send a COMMIT). However now that all writes generated by ->writepages() will automatically be followed by a COMMIT (since commit 919e3bd9a875 ("NFS: Ensure we commit after writeback is complete")) it makes more sense to treat them as writeback pages. So this patch removes NR_UNSTABLE_NFS and accounts unstable pages in NR_WRITEBACK and WB_WRITEBACK. A particular effect of this change is that when wb_check_background_flush() calls wb_over_bg_threshold(), the latter will report 'true' a lot less often as the 'unstable' pages are no longer considered 'dirty' (as there is nothing that writeback can do about them anyway). Currently wb_check_background_flush() will trigger writeback to NFS even when there are relatively few dirty pages (if there are lots of unstable pages), this can result in small writes going to the server (10s of Kilobytes rather than a Megabyte) which hurts throughput. With this patch, there are fewer writes which are each larger on average. Where the NR_UNSTABLE_NFS count was included in statistics virtual-files, the entry is retained, but the value is hard-coded as zero. static trace points and warning printks which mentioned this counter no longer report it. [ re-layout comment] [ fix printk warning] Signed-off-by: NeilBrown <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <> [mm] Cc: Christoph Hellwig <> Cc: Chuck Lever <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-06-02mm/writeback: replace PF_LESS_THROTTLE with PF_LOCAL_THROTTLENeilBrown
PF_LESS_THROTTLE exists for loop-back nfsd (and a similar need in the loop block driver and callers of prctl(PR_SET_IO_FLUSHER)), where a daemon needs to write to one bdi (the final bdi) in order to free up writes queued to another bdi (the client bdi). The daemon sets PF_LESS_THROTTLE and gets a larger allowance of dirty pages, so that it can still dirty pages after other processses have been throttled. The purpose of this is to avoid deadlock that happen when the PF_LESS_THROTTLE process must write for any dirty pages to be freed, but it is being thottled and cannot write. This approach was designed when all threads were blocked equally, independently on which device they were writing to, or how fast it was. Since that time the writeback algorithm has changed substantially with different threads getting different allowances based on non-trivial heuristics. This means the simple "add 25%" heuristic is no longer reliable. The important issue is not that the daemon needs a *larger* dirty page allowance, but that it needs a *private* dirty page allowance, so that dirty pages for the "client" bdi that it is helping to clear (the bdi for an NFS filesystem or loop block device etc) do not affect the throttling of the daemon writing to the "final" bdi. This patch changes the heuristic so that the task is not throttled when the bdi it is writing to has a dirty page count below below (or equal to) the free-run threshold for that bdi. This ensures it will always be able to have some pages in flight, and so will not deadlock. In a steady-state, it is expected that PF_LOCAL_THROTTLE tasks might still be throttled by global threshold, but that is acceptable as it is only the deadlock state that is interesting for this flag. This approach of "only throttle when target bdi is busy" is consistent with the other use of PF_LESS_THROTTLE in current_may_throttle(), were it causes attention to be focussed only on the target bdi. So this patch - renames PF_LESS_THROTTLE to PF_LOCAL_THROTTLE, - removes the 25% bonus that that flag gives, and - If PF_LOCAL_THROTTLE is set, don't delay at all unless the global and the local free-run thresholds are exceeded. Note that previously realtime threads were treated the same as PF_LESS_THROTTLE threads. This patch does *not* change the behvaiour for real-time threads, so it is now different from the behaviour of nfsd and loop tasks. I don't know what is wanted for realtime. [ coding style fixes] Signed-off-by: NeilBrown <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Acked-by: Chuck Lever <> [nfsd] Cc: Christoph Hellwig <> Cc: Michal Hocko <> Cc: Trond Myklebust <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-06-02mm/page-writeback.c: remove unused variableChao Yu
Commit 64081362e8ff ("mm/page-writeback.c: fix range_cyclic writeback vs writepages deadlock") left unused variable, remove it. Signed-off-by: Chao Yu <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: David Hildenbrand <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-04-27sysctl: pass kernel pointers to ->proc_handlerChristoph Hellwig
Instead of having all the sysctl handlers deal with user pointers, which is rather hairy in terms of the BPF interaction, copy the input to and from userspace in common code. This also means that the strings are always NUL-terminated by the common code, making the API a little bit safer. As most handler just pass through the data to one of the common handlers a lot of the changes are mechnical. Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Acked-by: Andrey Ignatov <> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2020-04-02mm/gup/writeback: add callbacks for inaccessible pagesClaudio Imbrenda
With the introduction of protected KVM guests on s390 there is now a concept of inaccessible pages. These pages need to be made accessible before the host can access them. While cpu accesses will trigger a fault that can be resolved, I/O accesses will just fail. We need to add a callback into architecture code for places that will do I/O, namely when writeback is started or when a page reference is taken. This is not only to enable paging, file backing etc, it is also necessary to protect the host against a malicious user space. For example a bad QEMU could simply start direct I/O on such protected memory. We do not want userspace to be able to trigger I/O errors and thus the logic is "whenever somebody accesses that page (gup) or does I/O, make sure that this page can be accessed". When the guest tries to access that page we will wait in the page fault handler for writeback to have finished and for the page_ref to be the expected value. On s390x the function is not supposed to fail, so it is ok to use a WARN_ON on failure. If we ever need some more finegrained handling we can tackle this when we know the details. Signed-off-by: Claudio Imbrenda <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: David Hildenbrand <> Reviewed-by: Christian Borntraeger <> Reviewed-by: John Hubbard <> Acked-by: Will Deacon <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Cc: Matthew Wilcox <> Cc: Ira Weiny <> Cc: Jérôme Glisse <> Cc: Al Viro <> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <> Cc: Dan Williams <> Cc: Dave Chinner <> Cc: Jason Gunthorpe <> Cc: Jonathan Corbet <> Cc: Michal Hocko <> Cc: Mike Kravetz <> Cc: Shuah Khan <> Cc: Vlastimil Babka <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-04-02mm/page-writeback.c: use VM_BUG_ON_PAGE in clear_page_dirty_for_ioMatthew Wilcox (Oracle)
Dumping the page information in this circumstance helps for debugging. Signed-off-by: Matthew Wilcox (Oracle) <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Acked-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <> Cc: Aneesh Kumar K.V <> Cc: Pankaj Gupta <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-04-02mm/page-writeback.c: write_cache_pages(): deduplicate identical checksMauricio Faria de Oliveira
There used to be a 'retry' label in between the two (identical) checks when first introduced in commit f446daaea9d4 ("mm: implement writeback livelock avoidance using page tagging"), and later modified/updated in commit 6e6938b6d313 ("writeback: introduce .tagged_writepages for the WB_SYNC_NONE sync stage"). The label has been removed in commit 64081362e8ff ("mm/page-writeback.c: fix range_cyclic writeback vs writepages deadlock"), and the (identical) checks are now present / performed immediately one after another. So, remove/deduplicate the latter check, moving tag_pages_for_writeback() into the former check before the 'tag' variable assignment, so it's clear that it's not used in this (similarly-named) function call but only later in pagevec_lookup_range_tag(). Signed-off-by: Mauricio Faria de Oliveira <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: Ira Weiny <> Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-01-13mm/page-writeback.c: improve arithmetic divisionsWen Yang
Use div64_ul() instead of do_div() if the divisor is unsigned long, to avoid truncation to 32-bit on 64-bit platforms. Link: Signed-off-by: Wen Yang <> Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Qian Cai <> Cc: Tejun Heo <> Cc: Jens Axboe <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-01-13mm/page-writeback.c: use div64_ul() for u64-by-unsigned-long divideWen Yang
The two variables 'numerator' and 'denominator', though they are declared as long, they should actually be unsigned long (according to the implementation of the fprop_fraction_percpu() function) And do_div() does a 64-by-32 division, while the divisor 'denominator' is unsigned long, thus 64-bit on 64-bit platforms. Hence the proper function to call is div64_ul(). Link: Signed-off-by: Wen Yang <> Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Qian Cai <> Cc: Tejun Heo <> Cc: Jens Axboe <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2020-01-13mm/page-writeback.c: avoid potential division by zero in wb_min_max_ratio()Wen Yang
Patch series "use div64_ul() instead of div_u64() if the divisor is unsigned long". We were first inspired by commit b0ab99e7736a ("sched: Fix possible divide by zero in avg_atom () calculation"), then refer to the recently analyzed mm code, we found this suspicious place. 201 if (min) { 202 min *= this_bw; 203 do_div(min, tot_bw); 204 } And we also disassembled and confirmed it: /usr/src/debug/kernel-4.9.168-016.ali3000/linux-4.9.168-016.ali3000.alios7.x86_64/mm/page-writeback.c: 201 0xffffffff811c37da <__wb_calc_thresh+234>: xor %r10d,%r10d 0xffffffff811c37dd <__wb_calc_thresh+237>: test %rax,%rax 0xffffffff811c37e0 <__wb_calc_thresh+240>: je 0xffffffff811c3800 <__wb_calc_thresh+272> /usr/src/debug/kernel-4.9.168-016.ali3000/linux-4.9.168-016.ali3000.alios7.x86_64/mm/page-writeback.c: 202 0xffffffff811c37e2 <__wb_calc_thresh+242>: imul %r8,%rax /usr/src/debug/kernel-4.9.168-016.ali3000/linux-4.9.168-016.ali3000.alios7.x86_64/mm/page-writeback.c: 203 0xffffffff811c37e6 <__wb_calc_thresh+246>: mov %r9d,%r10d ---> truncates it to 32 bits here 0xffffffff811c37e9 <__wb_calc_thresh+249>: xor %edx,%edx 0xffffffff811c37eb <__wb_calc_thresh+251>: div %r10 0xffffffff811c37ee <__wb_calc_thresh+254>: imul %rbx,%rax 0xffffffff811c37f2 <__wb_calc_thresh+258>: shr $0x2,%rax 0xffffffff811c37f6 <__wb_calc_thresh+262>: mul %rcx 0xffffffff811c37f9 <__wb_calc_thresh+265>: shr $0x2,%rdx 0xffffffff811c37fd <__wb_calc_thresh+269>: mov %rdx,%r10 This series uses div64_ul() instead of div_u64() if the divisor is unsigned long, to avoid truncation to 32-bit on 64-bit platforms. This patch (of 3): The variables 'min' and 'max' are unsigned long and do_div truncates them to 32 bits, which means it can test non-zero and be truncated to zero for division. Fix this issue by using div64_ul() instead. Link: Fixes: 693108a8a667 ("writeback: make bdi->min/max_ratio handling cgroup writeback aware") Signed-off-by: Wen Yang <> Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Qian Cai <> Cc: Tejun Heo <> Cc: Jens Axboe <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2019-08-27writeback, memcg: Implement foreign dirty flushingTejun Heo
There's an inherent mismatch between memcg and writeback. The former trackes ownership per-page while the latter per-inode. This was a deliberate design decision because honoring per-page ownership in the writeback path is complicated, may lead to higher CPU and IO overheads and deemed unnecessary given that write-sharing an inode across different cgroups isn't a common use-case. Combined with inode majority-writer ownership switching, this works well enough in most cases but there are some pathological cases. For example, let's say there are two cgroups A and B which keep writing to different but confined parts of the same inode. B owns the inode and A's memory is limited far below B's. A's dirty ratio can rise enough to trigger balance_dirty_pages() sleeps but B's can be low enough to avoid triggering background writeback. A will be slowed down without a way to make writeback of the dirty pages happen. This patch implements foreign dirty recording and foreign mechanism so that when a memcg encounters a condition as above it can trigger flushes on bdi_writebacks which can clean its pages. Please see the comment on top of mem_cgroup_track_foreign_dirty_slowpath() for details. A reproducer follows. write-range.c:: #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <sys/types.h> static const char *usage = "write-range FILE START SIZE\n"; int main(int argc, char **argv) { int fd; unsigned long start, size, end, pos; char *endp; char buf[4096]; if (argc < 4) { fprintf(stderr, usage); return 1; } fd = open(argv[1], O_WRONLY); if (fd < 0) { perror("open"); return 1; } start = strtoul(argv[2], &endp, 0); if (*endp != '\0') { fprintf(stderr, usage); return 1; } size = strtoul(argv[3], &endp, 0); if (*endp != '\0') { fprintf(stderr, usage); return 1; } end = start + size; while (1) { for (pos = start; pos < end; ) { long bread, bwritten = 0; if (lseek(fd, pos, SEEK_SET) < 0) { perror("lseek"); return 1; } bread = read(0, buf, sizeof(buf) < end - pos ? sizeof(buf) : end - pos); if (bread < 0) { perror("read"); return 1; } if (bread == 0) return 0; while (bwritten < bread) { long this; this = write(fd, buf + bwritten, bread - bwritten); if (this < 0) { perror("write"); return 1; } bwritten += this; pos += bwritten; } } } } #!/bin/bash set -e set -x sysctl -w vm.dirty_expire_centisecs=300000 sysctl -w vm.dirty_writeback_centisecs=300000 sysctl -w vm.dirtytime_expire_seconds=300000 echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches TEST=/sys/fs/cgroup/test A=$TEST/A B=$TEST/B mkdir -p $A $B echo "+memory +io" > $TEST/cgroup.subtree_control echo $((1<<30)) > $A/memory.high echo $((32<<30)) > $B/memory.high rm -f testfile touch testfile fallocate -l 4G testfile echo "Starting B" (echo $BASHPID > $B/cgroup.procs pv -q --rate-limit 70M < /dev/urandom | ./write-range testfile $((2<<30)) $((2<<30))) & echo "Waiting 10s to ensure B claims the testfile inode" sleep 5 sync sleep 5 sync echo "Starting A" (echo $BASHPID > $A/cgroup.procs pv < /dev/urandom | ./write-range testfile 0 $((2<<30))) v2: Added comments explaining why the specific intervals are being used. v3: Use 0 @nr when calling cgroup_writeback_by_id() to use best-effort flushing while avoding possible livelocks. v4: Use get_jiffies_64() and time_before/after64() instead of raw jiffies_64 and arthimetic comparisons as suggested by Jan. Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2019-07-12mm: remove the account_page_dirtied exportChristoph Hellwig
account_page_dirtied() is only used by our set_page_dirty() helpers and should not be used anywhere else. Link: Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2019-05-21treewide: Add SPDX license identifier for missed filesThomas Gleixner
Add SPDX license identifiers to all files which: - Have no license information of any form - Have EXPORT_.*_SYMBOL_GPL inside which was used in the initial scan/conversion to ignore the file These files fall under the project license, GPL v2 only. The resulting SPDX license identifier is: GPL-2.0-only Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
2019-05-14mm/page-writeback: introduce tracepoint for wait_on_page_writeback()Yafang Shao
Recently there have been some hung tasks on our server due to wait_on_page_writeback(), and we want to know the details of this PG_writeback, i.e. this page is writing back to which device. But it is not so convenient to get the details. I think it would be better to introduce a tracepoint for diagnosing the writeback details. Link: Signed-off-by: Yafang Shao <> Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Cc: Michal Hocko <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2019-03-05docs/core-api/mm: fix return value descriptions in mm/Mike Rapoport
Many kernel-doc comments in mm/ have the return value descriptions either misformatted or omitted at all which makes kernel-doc script unhappy: $ make V=1 htmldocs ... ./mm/util.c:36: info: Scanning doc for kstrdup ./mm/util.c:41: warning: No description found for return value of 'kstrdup' ./mm/util.c:57: info: Scanning doc for kstrdup_const ./mm/util.c:66: warning: No description found for return value of 'kstrdup_const' ./mm/util.c:75: info: Scanning doc for kstrndup ./mm/util.c:83: warning: No description found for return value of 'kstrndup' ... Fixing the formatting and adding the missing return value descriptions eliminates ~100 such warnings. Link: Signed-off-by: Mike Rapoport <> Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Jonathan Corbet <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2018-12-28mm/page-writeback.c: don't break integrity writeback on ->writepage() errorBrian Foster
write_cache_pages() is used in both background and integrity writeback scenarios by various filesystems. Background writeback is mostly concerned with cleaning a certain number of dirty pages based on various mm heuristics. It may not write the full set of dirty pages or wait for I/O to complete. Integrity writeback is responsible for persisting a set of dirty pages before the writeback job completes. For example, an fsync() call must perform integrity writeback to ensure data is on disk before the call returns. write_cache_pages() unconditionally breaks out of its processing loop in the event of a ->writepage() error. This is fine for background writeback, which had no strict requirements and will eventually come around again. This can cause problems for integrity writeback on filesystems that might need to clean up state associated with failed page writeouts. For example, XFS performs internal delayed allocation accounting before returning a ->writepage() error, where applicable. If the current writeback happens to be associated with an unmount and write_cache_pages() completes the writeback prematurely due to error, the filesystem is unmounted in an inconsistent state if dirty+delalloc pages still exist. To handle this problem, update write_cache_pages() to always process the full set of pages for integrity writeback regardless of ->writepage() errors. Save the first encountered error and return it to the caller once complete. This facilitates XFS (or any other fs that expects integrity writeback to process the entire set of dirty pages) to clean up its internal state completely in the event of persistent mapping errors. Background writeback continues to exit on the first error encountered. [ fix typo in comment] Link: Signed-off-by: Brian Foster <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2018-10-28Merge branch 'xarray' of git:// Torvalds
Pull XArray conversion from Matthew Wilcox: "The XArray provides an improved interface to the radix tree data structure, providing locking as part of the API, specifying GFP flags at allocation time, eliminating preloading, less re-walking the tree, more efficient iterations and not exposing RCU-protected pointers to its users. This patch set 1. Introduces the XArray implementation 2. Converts the pagecache to use it 3. Converts memremap to use it The page cache is the most complex and important user of the radix tree, so converting it was most important. Converting the memremap code removes the only other user of the multiorder code, which allows us to remove the radix tree code that supported it. I have 40+ followup patches to convert many other users of the radix tree over to the XArray, but I'd like to get this part in first. The other conversions haven't been in linux-next and aren't suitable for applying yet, but you can see them in the xarray-conv branch if you're interested" * 'xarray' of git:// (90 commits) radix tree: Remove multiorder support radix tree test: Convert multiorder tests to XArray radix tree tests: Convert item_delete_rcu to XArray radix tree tests: Convert item_kill_tree to XArray radix tree tests: Move item_insert_order radix tree test suite: Remove multiorder benchmarking radix tree test suite: Remove __item_insert memremap: Convert to XArray xarray: Add range store functionality xarray: Move multiorder_check to in-kernel tests xarray: Move multiorder_shrink to kernel tests xarray: Move multiorder account test in-kernel radix tree test suite: Convert iteration test to XArray radix tree test suite: Convert tag_tagged_items to XArray radix tree: Remove radix_tree_clear_tags radix tree: Remove radix_tree_maybe_preload_order radix tree: Remove split/join code radix tree: Remove radix_tree_update_node_t page cache: Finish XArray conversion dax: Convert page fault handlers to XArray ...
2018-10-26mm/page-writeback.c: fix range_cyclic writeback vs writepages deadlockDave Chinner
We've recently seen a workload on XFS filesystems with a repeatable deadlock between background writeback and a multi-process application doing concurrent writes and fsyncs to a small range of a file. range_cyclic writeback Process 1 Process 2 xfs_vm_writepages write_cache_pages writeback_index = 2 cycled = 0 .... find page 2 dirty lock Page 2 ->writepage page 2 writeback page 2 clean page 2 added to bio no more pages write() locks page 1 dirties page 1 locks page 2 dirties page 1 fsync() .... xfs_vm_writepages write_cache_pages start index 0 find page 1 towrite lock Page 1 ->writepage page 1 writeback page 1 clean page 1 added to bio find page 2 towrite lock Page 2 page 2 is writeback <blocks> write() locks page 1 dirties page 1 fsync() .... xfs_vm_writepages write_cache_pages start index 0 !done && !cycled sets index to 0, restarts lookup find page 1 dirty find page 1 towrite lock Page 1 page 1 is writeback <blocks> lock Page 1 <blocks> DEADLOCK because: - process 1 needs page 2 writeback to complete to make enough progress to issue IO pending for page 1 - writeback needs page 1 writeback to complete so process 2 can progress and unlock the page it is blocked on, then it can issue the IO pending for page 2 - process 2 can't make progress until process 1 issues IO for page 1 The underlying cause of the problem here is that range_cyclic writeback is processing pages in descending index order as we hold higher index pages in a structure controlled from above write_cache_pages(). The write_cache_pages() caller needs to be able to submit these pages for IO before write_cache_pages restarts writeback at mapping index 0 to avoid wcp inverting the page lock/writeback wait order. generic_writepages() is not susceptible to this bug as it has no private context held across write_cache_pages() - filesystems using this infrastructure always submit pages in ->writepage immediately and so there is no problem with range_cyclic going back to mapping index 0. However: mpage_writepages() has a private bio context, exofs_writepages() has page_collect fuse_writepages() has fuse_fill_wb_data nfs_writepages() has nfs_pageio_descriptor xfs_vm_writepages() has xfs_writepage_ctx All of these ->writepages implementations can hold pages under writeback in their private structures until write_cache_pages() returns, and hence they are all susceptible to this deadlock. Also worth noting is that ext4 has it's own bastardised version of write_cache_pages() and so it /may/ have an equivalent deadlock. I looked at the code long enough to understand that it has a similar retry loop for range_cyclic writeback reaching the end of the file and then promptly ran away before my eyes bled too much. I'll leave it for the ext4 developers to determine if their code is actually has this deadlock and how to fix it if it has. There's a few ways I can see avoid this deadlock. There's probably more, but these are the first I've though of: 1. get rid of range_cyclic altogether 2. range_cyclic always stops at EOF, and we start again from writeback index 0 on the next call into write_cache_pages() 2a. wcp also returns EAGAIN to ->writepages implementations to indicate range cyclic has hit EOF. writepages implementations can then flush the current context and call wpc again to continue. i.e. lift the retry into the ->writepages implementation 3. range_cyclic uses trylock_page() rather than lock_page(), and it skips pages it can't lock without blocking. It will already do this for pages under writeback, so this seems like a no-brainer 3a. all non-WB_SYNC_ALL writeback uses trylock_page() to avoid blocking as per pages under writeback. I don't think #1 is an option - range_cyclic prevents frequently dirtied lower file offset from starving background writeback of rarely touched higher file offsets. #2 is simple, and I don't think it will have any impact on performance as going back to the start of the file implies an immediate seek. We'll have exactly the same number of seeks if we switch writeback to another inode, and then come back to this one later and restart from index 0. #2a is pretty much "status quo without the deadlock". Moving the retry loop up into the wcp caller means we can issue IO on the pending pages before calling wcp again, and so avoid locking or waiting on pages in the wrong order. I'm not convinced we need to do this given that we get the same thing from #2 on the next writeback call from the writeback infrastructure. #3 is really just a band-aid - it doesn't fix the access/wait inversion problem, just prevents it from becoming a deadlock situation. I'd prefer we fix the inversion, not sweep it under the carpet like this. #3a is really an optimisation that just so happens to include the band-aid fix of #3. So it seems that the simplest way to fix this issue is to implement solution #2 Link: Signed-off-by: Dave Chinner <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Cc: Nicholas Piggin <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2018-10-21mm: Convert page-writeback to XArrayMatthew Wilcox
Includes moving mapping_tagged() to fs.h as a static inline, and changing it to return bool. Signed-off-by: Matthew Wilcox <>
2018-08-30notifier: Remove notifier header file wherever not usedMukesh Ojha
The conversion of the hotplug notifiers to a state machine left the notifier.h includes around in some places. Remove them. Signed-off-by: Mukesh Ojha <> Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <> Link:
2018-08-17mm/page-writeback.c: update stale account_page_redirty() commentGreg Thelen
Commit 93f78d882865 ("writeback: move backing_dev_info->bdi_stat[] into bdi_writeback") replaced BDI_DIRTIED with WB_DIRTIED in account_page_redirty(). Update comment to track that change. BDI_DIRTIED => WB_DIRTIED BDI_WRITTEN => WB_WRITTEN Link: Signed-off-by: Greg Thelen <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Acked-by: Tejun Heo <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2018-04-20writeback: safer lock nestingGreg Thelen
lock_page_memcg()/unlock_page_memcg() use spin_lock_irqsave/restore() if the page's memcg is undergoing move accounting, which occurs when a process leaves its memcg for a new one that has memory.move_charge_at_immigrate set. unlocked_inode_to_wb_begin,end() use spin_lock_irq/spin_unlock_irq() if the given inode is switching writeback domains. Switches occur when enough writes are issued from a new domain. This existing pattern is thus suspicious: lock_page_memcg(page); unlocked_inode_to_wb_begin(inode, &locked); ... unlocked_inode_to_wb_end(inode, locked); unlock_page_memcg(page); If both inode switch and process memcg migration are both in-flight then unlocked_inode_to_wb_end() will unconditionally enable interrupts while still holding the lock_page_memcg() irq spinlock. This suggests the possibility of deadlock if an interrupt occurs before unlock_page_memcg(). truncate __cancel_dirty_page lock_page_memcg unlocked_inode_to_wb_begin unlocked_inode_to_wb_end <interrupts mistakenly enabled> <interrupt> end_page_writeback test_clear_page_writeback lock_page_memcg <deadlock> unlock_page_memcg Due to configuration limitations this deadlock is not currently possible because we don't mix cgroup writeback (a cgroupv2 feature) and memory.move_charge_at_immigrate (a cgroupv1 feature). If the kernel is hacked to always claim inode switching and memcg moving_account, then this script triggers lockup in less than a minute: cd /mnt/cgroup/memory mkdir a b echo 1 > a/memory.move_charge_at_immigrate echo 1 > b/memory.move_charge_at_immigrate ( echo $BASHPID > a/cgroup.procs while true; do dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/big bs=1M count=256 done ) & while true; do sync done & sleep 1h & SLEEP=$! while true; do echo $SLEEP > a/cgroup.procs echo $SLEEP > b/cgroup.procs done The deadlock does not seem possible, so it's debatable if there's any reason to modify the kernel. I suggest we should to prevent future surprises. And Wang Long said "this deadlock occurs three times in our environment", so there's more reason to apply this, even to stable. Stable 4.4 has minor conflicts applying this patch. For a clean 4.4 patch see "[PATCH for-4.4] writeback: safer lock nesting" Wang Long said "this deadlock occurs three times in our environment" [ v4] Link: [ comment tweaks, struct initialization simplification] Change-Id: Ibb773e8045852978f6207074491d262f1b3fb613 Link: Fixes: 682aa8e1a6a1 ("writeback: implement unlocked_inode_to_wb transaction and use it for stat updates") Signed-off-by: Greg Thelen <> Reported-by: Wang Long <> Acked-by: Wang Long <> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <> Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Tejun Heo <> Cc: Nicholas Piggin <> Cc: <> [v4.2+] Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2018-04-11page cache: use xa_lockMatthew Wilcox
Remove the address_space ->tree_lock and use the xa_lock newly added to the radix_tree_root. Rename the address_space ->page_tree to ->i_pages, since we don't really care that it's a tree. [ fix nds32, fs/dax.c] Link: Signed-off-by: Matthew Wilcox <> Acked-by: Jeff Layton <> Cc: Darrick J. Wong <> Cc: Dave Chinner <> Cc: Ryusuke Konishi <> Cc: Will Deacon <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-11-29Revert "mm/page-writeback.c: print a warning if the vm dirtiness settings ↵Michal Hocko
are illogical" This reverts commit 0f6d24f87856 ("mm/page-writeback.c: print a warning if the vm dirtiness settings are illogical") because it causes false positive warnings during OOM situations as noticed by Tetsuo Handa: Node 0 active_anon:3525940kB inactive_anon:8372kB active_file:216kB inactive_file:1872kB unevictable:0kB isolated(anon):0kB isolated(file):0kB mapped:2504kB dirty:52kB writeback:0kB shmem:8660kB shmem_thp: 0kB shmem_pmdmapped: 0kB anon_thp: 636928kB writeback_tmp:0kB unstable:0kB all_unreclaimable? yes Node 0 DMA free:14848kB min:284kB low:352kB high:420kB active_anon:992kB inactive_anon:0kB active_file:0kB inactive_file:0kB unevictable:0kB writepending:0kB present:15988kB managed:15904kB mlocked:0kB kernel_stack:0kB pagetables:24kB bounce:0kB free_pcp:0kB local_pcp:0kB free_cma:0kB lowmem_reserve[]: 0 2687 3645 3645 Node 0 DMA32 free:53004kB min:49608kB low:62008kB high:74408kB active_anon:2712648kB inactive_anon:0kB active_file:0kB inactive_file:0kB unevictable:0kB writepending:0kB present:3129216kB managed:2773132kB mlocked:0kB kernel_stack:96kB pagetables:5096kB bounce:0kB free_pcp:0kB local_pcp:0kB free_cma:0kB lowmem_reserve[]: 0 0 958 958 Node 0 Normal free:17140kB min:17684kB low:22104kB high:26524kB active_anon:812300kB inactive_anon:8372kB active_file:1228kB inactive_file:1868kB unevictable:0kB writepending:52kB present:1048576kB managed:981224kB mlocked:0kB kernel_stack:3520kB pagetables:8552kB bounce:0kB free_pcp:120kB local_pcp:120kB free_cma:0kB lowmem_reserve[]: 0 0 0 0 [...] Out of memory: Kill process 8459 (a.out) score 999 or sacrifice child Killed process 8459 (a.out) total-vm:4180kB, anon-rss:88kB, file-rss:0kB, shmem-rss:0kB oom_reaper: reaped process 8459 (a.out), now anon-rss:0kB, file-rss:0kB, shmem-rss:0kB vm direct limit must be set greater than background limit. The problem is that both thresh and bg_thresh will be 0 if available_memory is less than 4 pages when evaluating global_dirtyable_memory. While this might be worked around the whole point of the warning is dubious at best. We do rely on admins to do sensible things when changing tunable knobs. Dirty memory writeback knobs are not any special in that regards so revert the warning rather than adding more hacks to work this around. Debugged by Yafang Shao. Link: Fixes: 0f6d24f87856 ("mm/page-writeback.c: print a warning if the vm dirtiness settings are illogical") Signed-off-by: Michal Hocko <> Reported-by: Tetsuo Handa <> Cc: Yafang Shao <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-11-21block/laptop_mode: Convert timers to use timer_setup()Kees Cook
In preparation for unconditionally passing the struct timer_list pointer to all timer callbacks, switch to using the new timer_setup() and from_timer() to pass the timer pointer explicitly. Cc: Jens Axboe <> Cc: Michal Hocko <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Cc: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Nicholas Piggin <> Cc: Vladimir Davydov <> Cc: Matthew Wilcox <> Cc: Jeff Layton <> Cc: Cc: Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2017-11-15writeback: remove unused function parameterWang Long
The parameter `struct bdi_writeback *wb` is not been used in the function body. Remove it. Link: Signed-off-by: Wang Long <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Acked-by: Tejun Heo <> Cc: Jens Axboe <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-11-15mm, pagevec: remove cold parameter for pagevecsMel Gorman
Every pagevec_init user claims the pages being released are hot even in cases where it is unlikely the pages are hot. As no one cares about the hotness of pages being released to the allocator, just ditch the parameter. No performance impact is expected as the overhead is marginal. The parameter is removed simply because it is a bit stupid to have a useless parameter copied everywhere. Link: Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <> Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <> Cc: Andi Kleen <> Cc: Dave Chinner <> Cc: Dave Hansen <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Cc: Johannes Weiner <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-11-15mm: speed up cancel_dirty_page() for clean pagesJan Kara
Patch series "Speed up page cache truncation", v1. When rebasing our enterprise distro to a newer kernel (from 4.4 to 4.12) we have noticed a regression in bonnie++ benchmark when deleting files. Eventually we have tracked this down to a fact that page cache truncation got slower by about 10%. There were both gains and losses in the above interval of kernels but we have been able to identify that commit 83929372f629 ("filemap: prepare find and delete operations for huge pages") caused about 10% regression on its own. After some investigation it didn't seem easily possible to fix the regression while maintaining the THP in page cache functionality so we've decided to optimize the page cache truncation path instead to make up for the change. This series is a result of that effort. Patch 1 is an easy speedup of cancel_dirty_page(). Patches 2-6 refactor page cache truncation code so that it is easier to batch radix tree operations. Patch 7 implements batching of deletes from the radix tree which more than makes up for the original regression. This patch (of 7): cancel_dirty_page() does quite some work even for clean pages (fetching of mapping, locking of memcg, atomic bit op on page flags) so it accounts for ~2.5% of cost of truncation of a clean page. That is not much but still dumb for something we don't need at all. Check whether a page is actually dirty and avoid any work if not. Link: Signed-off-by: Jan Kara <> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <> Reviewed-by: Andi Kleen <> Cc: Dave Hansen <> Cc: Dave Chinner <> Cc: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-11-15mm/page-writeback.c: convert timers to use timer_setup()Kees Cook
In preparation for unconditionally passing the struct timer_list pointer to all timer callbacks, switch to using the new timer_setup() and from_timer() to pass the timer pointer explicitly. Link: Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Cc: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Vladimir Davydov <> Cc: Matthew Wilcox <> Cc: Jeff Layton <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-11-15mm: remove nr_pages argument from pagevec_lookup_{,range}_tag()Jan Kara
All users of pagevec_lookup() and pagevec_lookup_range() now pass PAGEVEC_SIZE as a desired number of pages. Just drop the argument. Link: Signed-off-by: Jan Kara <> Reviewed-by: Daniel Jordan <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-11-15mm: use pagevec_lookup_range_tag() in write_cache_pages()Jan Kara
Use pagevec_lookup_range_tag() in write_cache_pages() as it is interested only in pages from given range. Remove unnecessary code resulting from this. Link: Signed-off-by: Jan Kara <> Reviewed-by: Daniel Jordan <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-11-15mm/page-writeback.c: print a warning if the vm dirtiness settings are illogicalYafang Shao
The vm direct limit setting must be set greater than vm background limit setting. Otherwise print a warning to help the operator to figure out that the vm dirtiness settings is in illogical state. Link: Signed-off-by: Yafang Shao <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Cc: Michal Hocko <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-11-15mm/page-writeback.c: remove unused parameter from balance_dirty_pages()Tahsin Erdogan
"mapping" parameter to balance_dirty_pages() is not used anymore. Fixes: dfb8ae567835 ("writeback: let balance_dirty_pages() work on the matching cgroup bdi_writeback") Link: Signed-off-by: Tahsin Erdogan <> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2017-10-14mm/page-writeback.c: make changes of dirty_writeback_centisecs take effect ↵Yafang Shao
immediately This patch is the followup of the prvious patch: [writeback: schedule periodic writeback with sysctl]. There's another issue to fix. For example, - When the tunable was set to one hour and is reset to one second, the new setting will not take effect for up to one hour. Kicking the flusher threads immediately fixes it. Cc: Jens Axboe <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Yafang Shao <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2017-10-09writeback: schedule periodic writeback with sysctlYafang Shao
After disable periodic writeback by writing 0 to dirty_writeback_centisecs, the handler wb_workfn() will not be entered again until the dirty background limit reaches or sync syscall is executed or no enough free memory available or vmscan is triggered. So the periodic writeback can't be enabled by writing a non-zero value to dirty_writeback_centisecs. As it can be disabled by sysctl, it should be able to enable by sysctl as well. Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Signed-off-by: Yafang Shao <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2017-10-03writeback: pass in '0' for nr_pages writeback in laptop modeJens Axboe
Laptop mode really wants to writeback the number of dirty pages and inodes. Instead of calculating this in the caller, just pass in 0 and let wakeup_flusher_threads() handle it. Use the new wakeup_flusher_threads_bdi() instead of rolling our own. Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <> Tested-by: Chris Mason <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2017-10-03writeback: remove 'range_cyclic' argument for wb_start_writeback()Jens Axboe
All the callers pass in 'true' for range_cyclic, so kill the argument. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2017-09-06mm: rename global_page_state to global_zone_page_stateMichal Hocko
global_page_state is error prone as a recent bug report pointed out [1]. It only returns proper values for zone based counters as the enum it gets suggests. We already have global_node_page_state so let's rename global_page_state to global_zone_page_state to be more explicit here. All existing users seems to be correct: $ git grep "global_page_state(NR_" | sed 's@.*(\(NR_[A-Z_]*\)).*@\1@' | sort | uniq -c 2 NR_BOUNCE 2 NR_FREE_CMA_PAGES 11 NR_FREE_PAGES 1 NR_KERNEL_STACK_KB 1 NR_MLOCK 2 NR_PAGETABLE This patch shouldn't introduce any functional change. [1] Link: Signed-off-by: Michal Hocko <> Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Tetsuo Handa <> Cc: Josef Bacik <> Cc: Vladimir Davydov <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>