path: root/mm/usercopy.c
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2020-08-12mm/usercopy.c: delete duplicated wordRandy Dunlap
Drop the repeated word "the". Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: Andrew Morton <> Reviewed-by: Zi Yan <> Link: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2019-09-17usercopy: Avoid HIGHMEM pfn warningKees Cook
When running on a system with >512MB RAM with a 32-bit kernel built with: CONFIG_DEBUG_VIRTUAL=y CONFIG_HIGHMEM=y CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY=y all execve()s will fail due to argv copying into kmap()ed pages, and on usercopy checking the calls ultimately of virt_to_page() will be looking for "bad" kmap (highmem) pointers due to CONFIG_DEBUG_VIRTUAL=y: ------------[ cut here ]------------ kernel BUG at ../arch/x86/mm/physaddr.c:83! invalid opcode: 0000 [#1] PREEMPT SMP DEBUG_PAGEALLOC CPU: 1 PID: 1 Comm: swapper/0 Not tainted 5.3.0-rc8 #6 Hardware name: Dell Inc. Inspiron 1318/0C236D, BIOS A04 01/15/2009 EIP: __phys_addr+0xaf/0x100 ... Call Trace: __check_object_size+0xaf/0x3c0 ? __might_sleep+0x80/0xa0 copy_strings+0x1c2/0x370 copy_strings_kernel+0x2b/0x40 __do_execve_file+0x4ca/0x810 ? kmem_cache_alloc+0x1c7/0x370 do_execve+0x1b/0x20 ... The check is from arch/x86/mm/physaddr.c: VIRTUAL_BUG_ON((phys_addr >> PAGE_SHIFT) > max_low_pfn); Due to the kmap() in fs/exec.c: kaddr = kmap(kmapped_page); ... if (copy_from_user(kaddr+offset, str, bytes_to_copy)) ... Now we can fetch the correct page to avoid the pfn check. In both cases, hardened usercopy will need to walk the page-span checker (if enabled) to do sanity checking. Reported-by: Randy Dunlap <> Tested-by: Randy Dunlap <> Fixes: f5509cc18daa ("mm: Hardened usercopy") Cc: Matthew Wilcox <> Cc: Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <> Reviewed-by: Matthew Wilcox (Oracle) <> Link:
2019-08-13mm/usercopy: use memory range to be accessed for wraparound checkIsaac J. Manjarres
Currently, when checking to see if accessing n bytes starting at address "ptr" will cause a wraparound in the memory addresses, the check in check_bogus_address() adds an extra byte, which is incorrect, as the range of addresses that will be accessed is [ptr, ptr + (n - 1)]. This can lead to incorrectly detecting a wraparound in the memory address, when trying to read 4 KB from memory that is mapped to the the last possible page in the virtual address space, when in fact, accessing that range of memory would not cause a wraparound to occur. Use the memory range that will actually be accessed when considering if accessing a certain amount of bytes will cause the memory address to wrap around. Link: Fixes: f5509cc18daa ("mm: Hardened usercopy") Signed-off-by: Prasad Sodagudi <> Signed-off-by: Isaac J. Manjarres <> Co-developed-by: Prasad Sodagudi <> Reviewed-by: William Kucharski <> Acked-by: Kees Cook <> Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <> Cc: Trilok Soni <> Cc: <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2019-06-19treewide: Replace GPLv2 boilerplate/reference with SPDX - rule 500Thomas Gleixner
Based on 2 normalized pattern(s): this program is free software you can redistribute it and or modify it under the terms of the gnu general public license version 2 as published by the free software foundation this program is free software you can redistribute it and or modify it under the terms of the gnu general public license version 2 as published by the free software foundation # extracted by the scancode license scanner the SPDX license identifier GPL-2.0-only has been chosen to replace the boilerplate/reference in 4122 file(s). Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <> Reviewed-by: Enrico Weigelt <> Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <> Reviewed-by: Allison Randal <> Cc: Link: Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
2019-01-08mm/usercopy.c: no check page span for stack objectsQian Cai
It is easy to trigger this with CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY_PAGESPAN=y, usercopy: Kernel memory overwrite attempt detected to spans multiple pages (offset 0, size 23)! kernel BUG at mm/usercopy.c:102! For example, print_worker_info char name[WQ_NAME_LEN] = { }; char desc[WORKER_DESC_LEN] = { }; probe_kernel_read(name, wq->name, sizeof(name) - 1); probe_kernel_read(desc, worker->desc, sizeof(desc) - 1); __copy_from_user_inatomic check_object_size check_heap_object check_page_span This is because on-stack variables could cross PAGE_SIZE boundary, and failed this check, if (likely(((unsigned long)ptr & (unsigned long)PAGE_MASK) == ((unsigned long)end & (unsigned long)PAGE_MASK))) ptr = FFFF889007D7EFF8 end = FFFF889007D7F00E Hence, fix it by checking if it is a stack object first. [ improve comments after reorder] Link: Link: Signed-off-by: Qian Cai <> Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <> Acked-by: Kees Cook <> Cc: <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2018-07-04usercopy: Allow boot cmdline disabling of hardeningChris von Recklinghausen
Enabling HARDENED_USERCOPY may cause measurable regressions in networking performance: up to 8% under UDP flood. I ran a small packet UDP flood using pktgen vs. a host b2b connected. On the receiver side the UDP packets are processed by a simple user space process that just reads and drops them: Not very useful from a functional PoV, but it helps to pin-point bottlenecks in the networking stack. When running a kernel with CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY=y, I see a 5-8% regression in the receive tput, compared to the same kernel without this option enabled. With CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY=y, perf shows ~6% of CPU time spent cumulatively in __check_object_size (~4%) and __virt_addr_valid (~2%). The call-chain is: __GI___libc_recvfrom entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe do_syscall_64 __x64_sys_recvfrom __sys_recvfrom inet_recvmsg udp_recvmsg __check_object_size udp_recvmsg() actually calls copy_to_iter() (inlined) and the latters calls check_copy_size() (again, inlined). A generic distro may want to enable HARDENED_USERCOPY in their default kernel config, but at the same time, such distro may want to be able to avoid the performance penalties in with the default configuration and disable the stricter check on a per-boot basis. This change adds a boot parameter that conditionally disables HARDENED_USERCOPY via "hardened_usercopy=off". Signed-off-by: Chris von Recklinghausen <> Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2018-01-15usercopy: WARN() on slab cache usercopy region violationsKees Cook
This patch adds checking of usercopy cache whitelisting, and is modified from Brad Spengler/PaX Team's PAX_USERCOPY whitelisting code in the last public patch of grsecurity/PaX based on my understanding of the code. Changes or omissions from the original code are mine and don't reflect the original grsecurity/PaX code. The SLAB and SLUB allocators are modified to WARN() on all copy operations in which the kernel heap memory being modified falls outside of the cache's defined usercopy region. Based on an earlier patch from David Windsor. Cc: Christoph Lameter <> Cc: Pekka Enberg <> Cc: David Rientjes <> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Laura Abbott <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: Mark Rutland <> Cc: Cc: Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2018-01-15usercopy: Include offset in hardened usercopy reportKees Cook
This refactors the hardened usercopy code so that failure reporting can happen within the checking functions instead of at the top level. This simplifies the return value handling and allows more details and offsets to be included in the report. Having the offset can be much more helpful in understanding hardened usercopy bugs. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2018-01-15usercopy: Enhance and rename report_usercopy()Kees Cook
In preparation for refactoring the usercopy checks to pass offset to the hardened usercopy report, this renames report_usercopy() to the more accurate usercopy_abort(), marks it as noreturn because it is, adds a hopefully helpful comment for anyone investigating such reports, makes the function available to the slab allocators, and adds new "detail" and "offset" arguments. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2018-01-15usercopy: Remove pointer from overflow reportKees Cook
Using %p was already mostly useless in the usercopy overflow reports, so this removes it entirely to avoid confusion now that %p-hashing is enabled. Fixes: ad67b74d2469d9b8 ("printk: hash addresses printed with %p") Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2017-04-05mm/usercopy: Drop extra is_vmalloc_or_module() checkLaura Abbott
Previously virt_addr_valid() was insufficient to validate if virt_to_page() could be called on an address on arm64. This has since been fixed up so there is no need for the extra check. Drop it. Signed-off-by: Laura Abbott <> Acked-by: Mark Rutland <> Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2017-04-04usercopy: Move enum for arch_within_stack_frames()Sahara
This patch moves the arch_within_stack_frames() return value enum up in the header files so that per-architecture implementations can reuse the same return values. Signed-off-by: Sahara <> Signed-off-by: James Morse <> [kees: adjusted naming and commit log] Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2017-03-02sched/headers: Prepare for new header dependencies before moving code to ↵Ingo Molnar
<linux/sched/task.h> We are going to split <linux/sched/task.h> out of <linux/sched.h>, which will have to be picked up from other headers and a couple of .c files. Create a trivial placeholder <linux/sched/task.h> file that just maps to <linux/sched.h> to make this patch obviously correct and bisectable. Include the new header in the files that are going to need it. Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Mike Galbraith <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2017-03-02sched/headers: Prepare to remove <linux/cred.h> inclusion from <linux/sched.h>Ingo Molnar
Add #include <linux/cred.h> dependencies to all .c files rely on sched.h doing that for them. Note that even if the count where we need to add extra headers seems high, it's still a net win, because <linux/sched.h> is included in over 2,200 files ... Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Mike Galbraith <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2017-01-11mm/usercopy: Switch to using lm_aliasLaura Abbott
The usercopy checking code currently calls __va(__pa(...)) to check for aliases on symbols. Switch to using lm_alias instead. Reviewed-by: Mark Rutland <> Tested-by: Mark Rutland <> Acked-by: Kees Cook <> Signed-off-by: Laura Abbott <> Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <>
2016-09-20mm: usercopy: Check for module addressesLaura Abbott
While running a compile on arm64, I hit a memory exposure usercopy: kernel memory exposure attempt detected from fffffc0000f3b1a8 (buffer_head) (1 bytes) ------------[ cut here ]------------ kernel BUG at mm/usercopy.c:75! Internal error: Oops - BUG: 0 [#1] SMP Modules linked in: ip6t_rpfilter ip6t_REJECT nf_reject_ipv6 xt_conntrack ip_set nfnetlink ebtable_broute bridge stp llc ebtable_nat ip6table_security ip6table_raw ip6table_nat nf_conntrack_ipv6 nf_defrag_ipv6 nf_nat_ipv6 ip6table_mangle iptable_security iptable_raw iptable_nat nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 nf_nat_ipv4 nf_nat nf_conntrack iptable_mangle ebtable_filter ebtables ip6table_filter ip6_tables vfat fat xgene_edac xgene_enet edac_core i2c_xgene_slimpro i2c_core at803x realtek xgene_dma mdio_xgene gpio_dwapb gpio_xgene_sb xgene_rng mailbox_xgene_slimpro nfsd auth_rpcgss nfs_acl lockd grace sunrpc xfs libcrc32c sdhci_of_arasan sdhci_pltfm sdhci mmc_core xhci_plat_hcd gpio_keys CPU: 0 PID: 19744 Comm: updatedb Tainted: G W 4.8.0-rc3-threadinfo+ #1 Hardware name: AppliedMicro X-Gene Mustang Board/X-Gene Mustang Board, BIOS 3.06.12 Aug 12 2016 task: fffffe03df944c00 task.stack: fffffe00d128c000 PC is at __check_object_size+0x70/0x3f0 LR is at __check_object_size+0x70/0x3f0 ... [<fffffc00082b4280>] __check_object_size+0x70/0x3f0 [<fffffc00082cdc30>] filldir64+0x158/0x1a0 [<fffffc0000f327e8>] __fat_readdir+0x4a0/0x558 [fat] [<fffffc0000f328d4>] fat_readdir+0x34/0x40 [fat] [<fffffc00082cd8f8>] iterate_dir+0x190/0x1e0 [<fffffc00082cde58>] SyS_getdents64+0x88/0x120 [<fffffc0008082c70>] el0_svc_naked+0x24/0x28 fffffc0000f3b1a8 is a module address. Modules may have compiled in strings which could get copied to userspace. In this instance, it looks like "." which matches with a size of 1 byte. Extend the is_vmalloc_addr check to be is_vmalloc_or_module_addr to cover all possible cases. Signed-off-by: Laura Abbott <> Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2016-09-07usercopy: remove page-spanning test for nowKees Cook
A custom allocator without __GFP_COMP that copies to userspace has been found in vmw_execbuf_process[1], so this disables the page-span checker by placing it behind a CONFIG for future work where such things can be tracked down later. [1] Reported-by: Vinson Lee <> Fixes: f5509cc18daa ("mm: Hardened usercopy") Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2016-08-22usercopy: fix overlap check for kernel textJosh Poimboeuf
When running with a local patch which moves the '_stext' symbol to the very beginning of the kernel text area, I got the following panic with CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY: usercopy: kernel memory exposure attempt detected from ffff88103dfff000 (<linear kernel text>) (4096 bytes) ------------[ cut here ]------------ kernel BUG at mm/usercopy.c:79! invalid opcode: 0000 [#1] SMP ... CPU: 0 PID: 4800 Comm: cp Not tainted 4.8.0-rc3.after+ #1 Hardware name: Dell Inc. PowerEdge R720/0X3D66, BIOS 2.5.4 01/22/2016 task: ffff880817444140 task.stack: ffff880816274000 RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8121c796>] __check_object_size+0x76/0x413 RSP: 0018:ffff880816277c40 EFLAGS: 00010246 RAX: 000000000000006b RBX: ffff88103dfff000 RCX: 0000000000000000 RDX: 0000000000000000 RSI: ffff88081f80dfa8 RDI: ffff88081f80dfa8 RBP: ffff880816277c90 R08: 000000000000054c R09: 0000000000000000 R10: 0000000000000005 R11: 0000000000000006 R12: 0000000000001000 R13: ffff88103e000000 R14: ffff88103dffffff R15: 0000000000000001 FS: 00007fb9d1750800(0000) GS:ffff88081f800000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 0000000080050033 CR2: 00000000021d2000 CR3: 000000081a08f000 CR4: 00000000001406f0 Stack: ffff880816277cc8 0000000000010000 000000043de07000 0000000000000000 0000000000001000 ffff880816277e60 0000000000001000 ffff880816277e28 000000000000c000 0000000000001000 ffff880816277ce8 ffffffff8136c3a6 Call Trace: [<ffffffff8136c3a6>] copy_page_to_iter_iovec+0xa6/0x1c0 [<ffffffff8136e766>] copy_page_to_iter+0x16/0x90 [<ffffffff811970e3>] generic_file_read_iter+0x3e3/0x7c0 [<ffffffffa06a738d>] ? xfs_file_buffered_aio_write+0xad/0x260 [xfs] [<ffffffff816e6262>] ? down_read+0x12/0x40 [<ffffffffa06a61b1>] xfs_file_buffered_aio_read+0x51/0xc0 [xfs] [<ffffffffa06a6692>] xfs_file_read_iter+0x62/0xb0 [xfs] [<ffffffff812224cf>] __vfs_read+0xdf/0x130 [<ffffffff81222c9e>] vfs_read+0x8e/0x140 [<ffffffff81224195>] SyS_read+0x55/0xc0 [<ffffffff81003a47>] do_syscall_64+0x67/0x160 [<ffffffff816e8421>] entry_SYSCALL64_slow_path+0x25/0x25 RIP: 0033:[<00007fb9d0c33c00>] 0x7fb9d0c33c00 RSP: 002b:00007ffc9c262f28 EFLAGS: 00000246 ORIG_RAX: 0000000000000000 RAX: ffffffffffffffda RBX: fffffffffff8ffff RCX: 00007fb9d0c33c00 RDX: 0000000000010000 RSI: 00000000021c3000 RDI: 0000000000000004 RBP: 00000000021c3000 R08: 0000000000000000 R09: 00007ffc9c264d6c R10: 00007ffc9c262c50 R11: 0000000000000246 R12: 0000000000010000 R13: 00007ffc9c2630b0 R14: 0000000000000004 R15: 0000000000010000 Code: 81 48 0f 44 d0 48 c7 c6 90 4d a3 81 48 c7 c0 bb b3 a2 81 48 0f 44 f0 4d 89 e1 48 89 d9 48 c7 c7 68 16 a3 81 31 c0 e8 f4 57 f7 ff <0f> 0b 48 8d 90 00 40 00 00 48 39 d3 0f 83 22 01 00 00 48 39 c3 RIP [<ffffffff8121c796>] __check_object_size+0x76/0x413 RSP <ffff880816277c40> The checked object's range [ffff88103dfff000, ffff88103e000000) is valid, so there shouldn't have been a BUG. The hardened usercopy code got confused because the range's ending address is the same as the kernel's text starting address at 0xffff88103e000000. The overlap check is slightly off. Fixes: f5509cc18daa ("mm: Hardened usercopy") Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <> Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2016-08-22usercopy: avoid potentially undefined behavior in pointer mathEric Biggers
check_bogus_address() checked for pointer overflow using this expression, where 'ptr' has type 'const void *': ptr + n < ptr Since pointer wraparound is undefined behavior, gcc at -O2 by default treats it like the following, which would not behave as intended: (long)n < 0 Fortunately, this doesn't currently happen for kernel code because kernel code is compiled with -fno-strict-overflow. But the expression should be fixed anyway to use well-defined integer arithmetic, since it could be treated differently by different compilers in the future or could be reported by tools checking for undefined behavior. Signed-off-by: Eric Biggers <> Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <>
2016-07-26mm: Hardened usercopyKees Cook
This is the start of porting PAX_USERCOPY into the mainline kernel. This is the first set of features, controlled by CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY. The work is based on code by PaX Team and Brad Spengler, and an earlier port from Casey Schaufler. Additional non-slab page tests are from Rik van Riel. This patch contains the logic for validating several conditions when performing copy_to_user() and copy_from_user() on the kernel object being copied to/from: - address range doesn't wrap around - address range isn't NULL or zero-allocated (with a non-zero copy size) - if on the slab allocator: - object size must be less than or equal to copy size (when check is implemented in the allocator, which appear in subsequent patches) - otherwise, object must not span page allocations (excepting Reserved and CMA ranges) - if on the stack - object must not extend before/after the current process stack - object must be contained by a valid stack frame (when there is arch/build support for identifying stack frames) - object must not overlap with kernel text Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <> Tested-by: Valdis Kletnieks <> Tested-by: Michael Ellerman <>