# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
bool "Extend memmap on extra space for more information on page"
Extend memmap on extra space for more information on page. This
could be used for debugging features that need to insert extra
field for every page. This extension enables us to save memory
by not allocating this extra memory according to boottime
bool "Debug page memory allocations"
depends on DEBUG_KERNEL
depends on !HIBERNATION || ARCH_SUPPORTS_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC && !PPC && !SPARC
select PAGE_POISONING if !ARCH_SUPPORTS_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC
Unmap pages from the kernel linear mapping after free_pages().
Depending on runtime enablement, this results in a small or large
slowdown, but helps to find certain types of memory corruption.
Also, the state of page tracking structures is checked more often as
pages are being allocated and freed, as unexpected state changes
often happen for same reasons as memory corruption (e.g. double free,
use-after-free). The error reports for these checks can be augmented
with stack traces of last allocation and freeing of the page, when
PAGE_OWNER is also selected and enabled on boot.
For architectures which don't enable ARCH_SUPPORTS_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC,
fill the pages with poison patterns after free_pages() and verify
the patterns before alloc_pages(). Additionally, this option cannot
be enabled in combination with hibernation as that would result in
incorrect warnings of memory corruption after a resume because free
pages are not saved to the suspend image.
By default this option will have a small overhead, e.g. by not
allowing the kernel mapping to be backed by large pages on some
architectures. Even bigger overhead comes when the debugging is
enabled by DEBUG_PAGEALLOC_ENABLE_DEFAULT or the debug_pagealloc
command line parameter.
bool "Enable debug page memory allocations by default?"
depends on DEBUG_PAGEALLOC
Enable debug page memory allocations by default? This value
can be overridden by debug_pagealloc=off|on.
bool "Track page owner"
depends on DEBUG_KERNEL && STACKTRACE_SUPPORT
This keeps track of what call chain is the owner of a page, may
help to find bare alloc_page(s) leaks. Even if you include this
feature on your build, it is disabled in default. You should pass
"page_owner=on" to boot parameter in order to enable it. Eats
a fair amount of memory if enabled. See tools/vm/page_owner_sort.c
for user-space helper.
If unsure, say N.
bool "Poison pages after freeing"
Fill the pages with poison patterns after free_pages() and verify
the patterns before alloc_pages. The filling of the memory helps
reduce the risk of information leaks from freed data. This does
have a potential performance impact if enabled with the
"page_poison=1" kernel boot option.
Note that "poison" here is not the same thing as the "HWPoison"
for CONFIG_MEMORY_FAILURE. This is software poisoning only.
If you are only interested in sanitization of freed pages without
checking the poison pattern on alloc, you can boot the kernel with
"init_on_free=1" instead of enabling this.
If unsure, say N
bool "Enable tracepoint to track down page reference manipulation"
depends on DEBUG_KERNEL
depends on TRACEPOINTS
This is a feature to add tracepoint for tracking down page reference
manipulation. This tracking is useful to diagnose functional failure
due to migration failures caused by page reference mismatches. Be
careful when enabling this feature because it adds about 30 KB to the
kernel code. However the runtime performance overhead is virtually
nil until the tracepoints are actually enabled.
bool "Testcase for the marking rodata read-only"
depends on STRICT_KERNEL_RWX
This option enables a testcase for the setting rodata read-only.
bool "Warn on W+X mappings at boot"
depends on ARCH_HAS_DEBUG_WX
depends on MMU
Generate a warning if any W+X mappings are found at boot.
This is useful for discovering cases where the kernel is leaving W+X
mappings after applying NX, as such mappings are a security risk.
Look for a message in dmesg output like this:
<arch>/mm: Checked W+X mappings: passed, no W+X pages found.
or like this, if the check failed:
<arch>/mm: Checked W+X mappings: failed, <N> W+X pages found.
Note that even if the check fails, your kernel is possibly
still fine, as W+X mappings are not a security hole in
themselves, what they do is that they make the exploitation
of other unfixed kernel bugs easier.
There is no runtime or memory usage effect of this option
once the kernel has booted up - it's a one time check.
If in doubt, say "Y".
bool "Export kernel pagetable layout to userspace via debugfs"
depends on DEBUG_KERNEL
depends on DEBUG_FS
depends on GENERIC_PTDUMP
Say Y here if you want to show the kernel pagetable layout in a
debugfs file. This information is only useful for kernel developers
who are working in architecture specific areas of the kernel.
It is probably not a good idea to enable this feature in a production
If in doubt, say N.